10 ways to help end dog fighting!!!
07-21-2011, 10:32 AM
10 ways to help end dog fighting!!!
In recent years, Pit Bulls have gained more than just a foothold in public awareness. Unscrupulous breeding and negative media attention have resulted in many apartment complexes, neighborhoods and even counties imposing bans on Pits and Pit mixes, citing them as "inherently dangerous" to the public.
Pit Bulls often attract the worst kind of dog owners—people who are only interested in these dogs for fighting or protection. While Pit Bulls were once considered especially non-aggressive to people, their reputation has changed, thanks to unscrupulous breeders and irresponsible owners. And because the Pit Bull population has increased so rapidly, shelters now struggle to deal with an overflow of image-plagued, hard-to-place dogs.
History of the Breed Pit Bulls are descendants of the original English bull-baiting dog—a dog that was bred to bite and hold bulls, bears and other large animals around the face and head. "Bulldogs" were bred to hang on without releasing their grip, until the animal was exhausted from fighting and from loss of blood. When baiting large animals was banned in the 1800s, people then started to fight their dogs against each other instead.
As the "sport" of dog fighting developed, enthusiasts bred a lighter, more athletic canine. These dogs made their way to North America, the ancestors of today's Pit Bulls. Pit Bulls that were not used for fighting were considered ideal family pets—affectionate, loyal and gentle with children. Serious problems started when these dogs gained the attention of people looking for a macho dog—and to meet their demands, unscrupulous and uncaring breeders are producing puppies that were not only aggressive to other dogs, but also to people.
In the Fighting Ring Although a felony offense in all 50 states, organized dog fights still take place in many parts of the country. In some urban areas especially, dogfighters have formed a strong subculture. Dogs that fight are bred and conditioned to never give up when they are fighting, even if it means that they will be badly hurt or killed. Other animals are victims of dog fights, too—it's not uncommon for trainers to encourage their dogs' aggression by using other dogs and smaller animals such as cats, rabbits and rodents as bait.
While some might typify dog fighting as a symptom of urban decay, not every dogfighter is economically disadvantaged. Participants and promoters come from every community and all backgrounds, with audiences including lawyers, judges and teachers and other upstanding community leaders.
Unfortunately, a new element has been introduced to the world of dog fighting over the past two decades. Fights have become informal street corner and playground activities. Stripped of the rules and formality of the traditional pit fight, these spontaneous events are triggered by insults and turf invasions—or even the simple taunt, "My dog can kill your dog." Many people who participate in these fights lack even a semblance of respect for the animals, often starving and beating them to encourage aggressive behavior.
What You Can Do
Visit the ASPCA Advocacy Center to keep up to date on dog fighting legislation in your state.
Adopt a Pit Bull and let your perfect pooch be an ambassador for the breed!
If your local shelter is facing a Pit Bull dilemma, volunteer to help keep adoptable Pit Bulls and Pit mixes mentally and physically fit by exercising them or taking them to obedience classes. You can also lead a chew-toy drive at work to collect hard rubber playthings to keep them busy, or help create a fund-raiser to support a free sterilization program for Pit Bulls in your local community.
Do your kids have questions about dog fighting? Visit our children's website, ASPCA Kids, for information about dog fighting that's written especially for kids.
Visit Pit Bull Rescue Central for information on adopting and caring for American Pit Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers and Pit Bull mixes.
Dog Fighting FAQ Q. When and How Did Dog Fighting Come to America? Although there are historical accounts of dog fights going back to the 1750s, widespread activity emerged after the Civil War, with professional pits proliferating in the 1860s, mainly in the Northeast.
Ironically, it was a common form of entertainment for police officers and firemen�97;the �201c;Police Gazette�201d; served as a major source of information on dog fighting for many years. Although many laws were passed to outlaw the activity, dog fighting continued to expand during the twentieth century.
Q. Where Did These Animals Come From? Many of the dogs were brought over from England and Ireland, where dog fighting had begun to flourish after bull-baiting and bear-baiting became illegal in the 1830s.
Q. How Has the ASPCA Combated Dog Fighting Through the Years? Henry Bergh, founder of the ASPCA, was particularly repulsed by the brutality of the dog fighting he saw in New York and elsewhere. His 1867 revision of the state�2019;s animal cruelty law made all forms of animal fighting illegal for the first time, including bull, bear, dog and cockfighting. The involvement of regular police in dog fighting activities was one of the reasons Bergh sought and received authority for the ASPCA Humane Law Enforcement Agents to have arrest powers in New York.
Q. How Does the ASPCA Combat Dog Fighting Today? Today, the ASPCA incorporates information on blood �201c;sports�201d; in the animal cruelty trainings it provides in New York�2019;s police academies as well as in police officer trainings around the country.
It also provides training on a national level to animal control officers and veterinarians on how to identify the signs of animal cruelty, as well as in crime scene investigation (CSI).
In addition, the ASPCA regularly provides training and assistance to prosecutors on how to build an effective case against those charged with these crimes, and its experts often serve as witnesses in such cases. Several ASPCA employees have published educational and reference books on animal cruelty investigation and prosecution that are used widely throughout the country.
The ASPCA Humane Law Enforcement (HLE) Department is active in enforcing New York City�2019;s animal cruelty laws and has played a vital role in raising awareness of animal cruelty.
Q. Are There Different Levels of Dog Fighting? Most law enforcement experts divide dog fight activity into three categories: street fighting, hobbyist fighting and professional activity:
�201c;Street�201d; fighters engage in dog fights that are informal street corner, back alley and playground activities. Stripped of the rules and formality of the traditional pit fight, these are spontaneous events triggered by insults, turf invasions or the simple taunt, �201c;My dog can kill yours.�201d; Many people who participate in these fights lack even a semblance of respect for the animals, often starving and beating them to encourage aggressive behavior. Many of the dogs are bred to be a threat not only to other dogs, but to people as well�97;with tragic consequences.
�201c;Street�201d; fights are often associated with gang activities. The fights may be conducted with money, drugs or bragging rights as the primary payoff. There is often no attempt to care for animals injured in the fight and police or animal control officers frequently encounter dead or dying animals in the aftermath of such fights. This activity is very difficult to respond to unless it is reported immediately. Professional fighters and hobbyists decry the techniques and results of these newcomers to the blood sport.
�201c;Hobbyist�201d; fighters are more organized, with one or more dogs participating in several organized fights a year as a sideline for both entertainment and to attempt to supplement income. They pay more attention to care and breeding of their dogs and are more likely to travel across state lines for events.
�201c;Professional�201d; dogfighters often have large numbers of animals (as many as 50 or more) and earn money from breeding, selling and fighting dogs at a central location and on the road. They often pay particular attention to promoting established winning bloodlines and to long-term conditioning of animals. They regularly dispose of animals that are not successful fighters or breeders using a variety of methods, including shooting and blunt force trauma. Unlike professional dogfighters of the past, both professionals and hobbyists of today may dispose of dogs that are too human-aggressive for the pit by selling them to �201c;street�201d; fighters or others who are simply looking for an aggressive dog�97;thus contributing to the dog bite problem.
In recent years, a fourth category of dogfighters seems to have emerged, with some wealthier individuals from the sports and entertainment worlds allegedly using their financial resources to promote professional dog fighting enterprises, which essentially use the philosophy and training techniques usually associated with street fighting.
Q. How Widespread is Dog Fighting in America? As with any other illegal underground activity, it is impossible to determine how many people may be involved in dog fighting. Estimates based on fight reports in underground dog fighting publications, and on animals entering shelters bearing evidence of fighting, suggest that the number of people involved in dog fighting in the U.S. is in the tens of thousands.
While organized dog fighting activity seemed to decline in the 1990s, many law enforcement and animal control officials feel that it has rebounded in recent years. Street fighting has reportedly continued to grow as a significant component of urban crime. The Internet has also made it easier for dogfighters to rapidly exchange information about animals and fights.
Q. Is Dog Fighting More Prevalent in One Part of the Country? No. Dog fighting has been reported in urban, suburban and rural settings in all regions of the country.
Fighters were traditionally attracted to states with weaker penalties for dog fighting and animal cruelty, many in the South�97;but laws continue to be made stronger throughout the country. As a result, this activity is no longer limited to any single area, but it is more likely to thrive wherever enforcement of anti-fighting laws is weak.
Q. What Types of People Are Involved in Dog Fighting? Just as dog fighting cuts across many regions of the country, participants and spectators at dog fights are a diverse group. While some might typify dog fighting as a symptom of urban decay, not every dogfighter is economically disadvantaged. There are people who promote or participate in dog fighting from every community and background. Audiences contain lawyers, judges and teachers and other upstanding community leaders drawn in by the excitement and thrill of the fight.
Q. What Other Crimes Are Associated With Dog Fighting? Many of the practices associated with the raising and training of fighting dogs can be prosecuted separately as animal abuse or neglect. In addition, dog fighting, by its very nature, involves illegal gambling. Dogfighters often face additional charges related to drug, alcohol and weapons violations as well as probation violations. Arguments over dog fights have also resulted in incidents that have led to charges of assault and even homicide. Other charges might include conspiracy, corruption of minors, money laundering, etc.
Q. Why Do People Get Involved In Dog Fighting? There are many reasons people are attracted to dog fighting. The most basic is greed. Major dog fight raids have resulted in seizures of more than $500,000, and it is not unusual for $20,000 - $30,000 to change hands in a single fight. Stud fees and the sale of pups from promising bloodlines can also bring in thousands of dollars.
For others, the attraction lies in using the animals as an extension of themselves to fight their battles for them and demonstrate their strength and prowess. However, when a dog loses, this can cause the owner of the dog to lose not only money, but status, and may lead to brutal actions against the dog.
For others, the appeal simply seems to come from the sadistic enjoyment of a brutal spectacle.
Q. What Dogs Are Used In Dog Fighting? Although there are many breeds of dogs used for fighting worldwide, including the Fila Brasileiro, Dogo Argentino, the Tosa Inu and the Presa Canario, the dog of choice for fighting in America is the American Pit Bull Terrier. Occasionally other breeds and mixes are reportedly used in street fights or as �201c;bait�201d; dogs used by some to train fighting dogs.
In the early days of dog fighting in England, the Old English Bulldog and the Bull and Terrier Dog, both now extinct, were the breeds of choice for this brutal blood sport. These breeds were replaced in the early twentieth century by the American Pit Bull Terrier�97;the Americanized version of the bull-baiting dogs from England.
Q. Does This Mean the Pit Bull Is Unsuitable As a Family Pet? Though bred for fighting other dogs�97;or perhaps because of that�97;the American Pit Bull terrier has long been a popular family pet, noted for his strength, intelligence and devotion.
It�2019;s important to remember any dog can behave aggressively, depending on the context, his genetic background, and his upbringing and environment. When a dog is treated well, properly trained and thoroughly socialized during puppyhood and matched with the right kind of owner and household, he�2019;s likely to develop into a well-behaved companion and cherished member of the family. However, some Pit Bulls and Pit Bull mixes may be more inclined to develop aggression toward other dogs
Q. Can All dogs Be Trained to Fight? No. Much like herding dogs, trailing dogs and other breeds selected for particular roles, fighting dogs are born ready for the training that will prepare them to succeed in the pit, and are bred to have a high degree of dog aggression.
Q. Where Do the Dogs Who Are Used In Dog Fights Come From? For professional and hobbyist dogfighters, the sale of pups from parents who have won several fights is a major part of their activity. Underground dog fighting publications and websites are commonly used to advertise pups or the availability of breeding stock. Many �201c;street�201d; fighters think they can also make money by breeding and selling dogs, but a great number of these animals are killed or abandoned if they fail to perform.
Q. How Are Fighting Dogs Raised and Trained? Fighting dogs must be kept isolated from other dogs, so they spend most of their lives on short, heavy chains, often just out of reach of other dogs. They are usually unsocialized to any other dogs and to most people. However, many professional fighters invest much time and money in conditioning their animals. They are often given quality nutrition and basic veterinary care. The dogs are exercised under controlled conditions, such as on a treadmill or �201c;jenny.�201d;
The conditioning of fighting dogs may also make use of a variety of legal and illegal drugs, including anabolic steroids to enhance muscle mass and encourage aggressiveness. Narcotic drugs may also be used to increase the dogs�2019; aggression, increase reactivity and mask pain or fear during a fight. Young animals are often trained or tested by allowing them to fight with other dogs in well-controlled �201c;rolls.�201d; Those who show little inclination to fight may be discarded or killed. Some fighters will use stolen pets as "bait dogs," or sparring partners.
There are many other common techniques used in the training and testing of dogs, but these methods vary widely among different fighters and may range from systematic to haphazard. �201c;Street�201d; fighters usually make little investment in conditioning or training their animals. Instead, they rely on cruel methods to encourage their dogs to fight, including starvation, physical abuse, isolation and the use of stimulants or other drugs that excite the dogs.
Q. Why Do Fighting Dogs Have Their Ears Cropped and Tails Docked? Fighting dogs used by all types of fighters may have their ears cropped and tails docked close to their bodies. This serves two purposes. First, it limits the areas of the body that another dog can grab onto in a fight, and second, it makes it more difficult for other dogs to read the animal�2019;s mood and intentions through the normal body language cues dogs use in aggressive encounters.
Fighters usually perform this cropping/docking themselves using crude and inhumane techniques. This can lead to additional criminal charges related to animal cruelty and/or the illegal practice of veterinary medicine.
Q. What Goes On In a Dog Fight? As noted above, fights can take place in a variety of locations and at any time. They may be impromptu events in a back alley, or carefully planned and staged enterprises in a location specially designed and maintained for the purpose. Usually the fight takes place in a pit that is between 14 and 20 feet square, with sides that may be plywood, hay bales, chain link or anything else that can contain the animals. The flooring may be dirt, wood, carpet or sawdust. The pit has �201c;scratch lines�201d; marked in opposite corners, where the dogs will face each other from 12 to 14 feet apart.
In a more organized fight, the dogs will be weighed to make sure they are approximately the same weight. Handlers will often wash and examine the opponent�2019;s dog to remove any toxic substances that may have been placed on the fur in an attempt to deter or harm the opposing dog. At the start of the fight, the dogs are released from their corners and usually meet in the middle, wrestling to get a hold on the opponent. If they do, the dogs grab and shake to inflict maximal damage. Handlers are not permitted to touch the dogs except when told to do so by the referee. This can happen if dogs when, as described below, one dog �201c;turns.�201d;
If a dog turns away from his opponent without renewing his attack, the referee may call a �201c;turn�201d; and require that the dogs be returned to their corners. The handlers collect their dogs and tend to them briefly before returning to the scratch lines. The dog who turned is released first. If the dog who committed the �201c;turn�201d; fails to cross the pit and engage his opponent, the match is over and the other dog is the winner. A draw may occur if both dogs fail to �201c;scratch�201d; several times in succession, i.e. repeatedly fail to cross the scratch lines and re-engage in the fight. This is an unusual and often unpopular end for the dogs involved.
Q. How Long Do Dog Fights Last? Fights can last just a few minutes or several hours. Both animals may suffer injuries, including puncture wounds, lacerations, blood loss, crushing injuries and broken bones. Although fights are not usually to the death, many dogs succumb to their injuries later.
Q. What Happens to the Losing Dog? Unless they have had a good history of past performance or come from valuable bloodlines, losing dogs are often discarded, killed or simply left with their injuries untreated. If the losing dog is perceived to be a particular embarrassment to the reputation or status of its owner, it may be executed in a particularly brutal fashion as part of the �201c;entertainment.�201d;
Q. What Are the Laws Related to Dog Fighting? As of 2008, dog fighting is a felony in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In most states, the possession of dogs for the purpose of fighting is also a felony offense. Being a spectator at a dog fight is illegal in all states except Montana and Hawaii. See a chart of state dog fighting laws and their penalties, which vary widely.
On the federal side, the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 prohibits certain animal fighting-related activities when they have involved more than one state or interstate mail services, including the U.S. Postal Service. In 2007, Congress passed the Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act with strong bipartisan support. The Act amended the Animal Welfare Act and provides felony penalties for interstate commerce, import and export relating to commerce in fighting dogs, fighting cocks and cockfighting paraphernalia. Each violation can result in up to three years in jail and a $250,000 fine.
Q. What Happens to Dogs Who Are Seized From Dog Fight Operations? Can They Be Rehabilitated? Dogs from professional fighters have been bred and trained to inflict injuries on other dogs, so they can be difficult to house and care for safely. They are usually very friendly to people�97;they�2019;ve been bred for this trait so that they can be easily handled during fights�97;but, unfortunately, these dogs can be extremely dangerous to other dogs. That is why the ASPCA recommends that all dogs seized from fighting raids be assessed by professional behaviorists.
Each dog should undergo a standardized evaluation that is designed to gauge the dog�2019;s reaction to a range of experiences common to most companion dogs, including being handled by a stranger, playing with people and toys, having a bowl of food and a chew bone taken away, meeting a doll that looks and sounds like a child and meeting other dogs. In some cases, dogs that demonstrate mild to moderate levels of aggression or fear may be candidates for rehabilitation if such resources are available. Concerns about liability, public safety and the animal�2019;s well-being mean that dogs exhibiting extreme fear or severe aggression toward people or other dogs are not adoptable and often have to be euthanized.
All dogs from fighting raids that are placed in foster or adoptive homes must be carefully monitored over the long term because we still don�2019;t know how likely these dogs are to develop aggressive behavior in the future.
Confiscated fighting dogs are also at high risk of being stolen from shelters, foster care or other placements and returned to the fight trade. Therefore, it is especially important for shelters to put solid security measures in place while housing fighting dogs, to spay and neuter dogs who are adopted out, and to educate foster groups and adopters about why it is best not to disclose the identity of these dogs to their friends and acquaintances.
Q. If Dog Fighting Is So Widespread, Why Don�2019;t More Cases Come to Light? Dog fighting is a violent and highly secretive enterprise that is extremely difficult for law enforcement and investigative professionals to infiltrate. A dog fight investigation requires many of the same skills and resources as a major undercover narcotics investigation, and challenges the resources of any agency that seeks to respond to it.
An additional complication is that the evidence likely to be seized in a raid includes the dogs�97;living creatures who must be taken care of and maintained while the judicial process unfolds. Most prosecutors would be happy to take on every dog fight case they could, but they are limited by the human and animal care resources available to them.
Q. What Can Communities Do to Combat Dog Fighting? The first step in combating dog fighting is for individuals to alert the authorities to any suspected or actual dog fighting activities in their area�97;identification of the problem is the first step to a solution.
In addition, the ASPCA recommends the formation of local or state task forces to address dog fighting. These groups should include members from all the major stakeholders in that community�97;law enforcement, prosecutors, animal control, animal welfare groups, veterinarians, public health officials, housing authorities, the neighborhood watch and others. The group should identify the nature of the problems in the area, the laws that could be applied to these problems, and the resources that are available. Dog fighting is most effectively addressed by a collaborative approach to this heinous crime.
Q. What Can Citizens Do? The enforcement of animal cruelty laws begins with the individual. If you see something, please say something�97;notify your local police and/or humane law enforcement of any suspicious activities that suggest dog fighting is taking place in your community.
Q. How Prevalent Is Dog Fighting in New York City? In general, dog fighting is difficult to detect. ASPCA HLE Agents report seeing the peripheral effects and elements of dog fighting�97;these include injured dogs who had extensive wounds consistent with injuries of a "bait dog," such as scars and cuts in various stages of healing, as well as multiple, and often serious, bite wounds.
Paraphernalia associated with dog fighting such as treadmills, break sticks, steroids, pain-numbing drugs, syringes and weapons, large amounts of cash or other evidence of gambling is occasionally discovered, but not often enough to consider the blood sport prevalent in New York City.
Q. Does the ASPCA Bergh Memorial Animal Hospital (BMAH) See Many Dogs Who Have Incurred Injuries As a Result of Dog Fighting? What Kind of Injuries Do These Dogs Most Often Show? No, the ASPCA BMAH rarely, if ever, sees dogs who have incurred injuries as a result of dog fighting. This does not mean that dog fighting does not occur in New York. It is possible that such dogs are less likely to be brought to the ASPCA for treatment. Their owners might avoid the ASPCA because they know that the organization is sensitive to signs of animal cruelty and might place them under investigation.
In general, fighting dogs are less likely to have access to veterinary professionals for treatment of their injuries. Veterinarians should be watchful for some of the typical injuries in fighting dogs, including unprofessionally cropped tails and ears, multiple bite wounds, heavy scarring, missing and torn ears and lips, and previously broken limbs that healed improperly. Several states (including Arizona, California, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin and West Virginia) specifically require veterinarians to report suspicions of dog fighting when confronted with animals with such injuries.
Breed Specific Legislation Dealing with Reckless Owners and Dangerous Dogs in Your Community Dogs permitted by their owners to run loose, and dogs who attack people or other animals, are real and often serious problems in communities across the country—but how to best address dangerous and potentially dangerous dogs can be a confusing and touchy issue.
“Breed-specific” legislation (BSL) is the blanket term for laws that either regulate or ban certain breeds completely in the hopes of reducing dog attacks. Some city/municipal governments have enacted breed-specific laws, as has the State of Ohio. However, the problem of dangerous dogs will not be remedied by the “quick fix” of breed-specific laws—or, as they should truly be called, breed-discriminatory laws.
It is worth noting that in some areas, regulated breeds include not just American Pit Bull terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers, English Bull Terriers and Rottweilers, but also a variety of other dogs, including American Bulldogs, Mastiffs, Dalmatians, Chow Chows, German Shepherds, Doberman Pinschers, or any mix of these breeds—and dogs who simply resemble these breeds.
On the bright side, many states (including New York, Texas and Illinois) favor laws that identify, track and regulate dangerous dogs individually, regardless of breed, and prohibit BSL.
Are Breed-Specific Laws Effective? There is no evidence that breed-specific laws—which are costly and difficult to enforce—make communities safer for people or companion animals. For example, Prince George’s County, MD, spends more than $250,000 annually to enforce its ban on Pit Bulls. In 2003, a study conducted by the county on the ban’s effectiveness noted that “public safety is not improved as a result of [the ban],” and that “there is no transgression committed by owner or animal that is not covered by another, non-breed specific portion of the Animal Control Code (i.e., vicious animal, nuisance animal, leash laws).”
Following a thorough study of human fatalities resulting from dog bites, the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) decided not to support BSL. The CDC cited, among other problems, the inaccuracy of dog bite data and the difficulty in identifying dog breeds (especially true of mixed-breed dogs). The CDC also noted the likelihood that as certain breeds are regulated, those who exploit dogs by making them aggressive will replace them with other, unregulated breeds.
What’s Wrong with Breed-Specific Laws? BSL carries a host of negative and wholly unintended consequences:
Dogs go into hiding
Rather than give up their beloved pets, owners of highly regulated or banned breeds often attempt to avoid detection of their “outlaw” dogs by restricting outdoor exercise and socialization and forgoing licensing, microchipping and proper veterinary care, including spay/neuter surgery and essential vaccinations. Such actions have implications both for public safety and the health of these dogs.
Good owners and dogs are punished
BSL also causes hardship to responsible owners of entirely friendly, properly supervised and well-socialized dogs who happen to fall within the regulated breed. Although these dog owners have done nothing to endanger the public, they are required to comply with local breed bans and regulations unless they are able to mount successful (and often costly) legal challenges.
They impart a false sense of security
Breed-specific laws have a tendency to compromise rather than enhance public safety. When limited animal control resources are used to regulate or ban a certain breed of dog, without regard to behavior, the focus is shifted away from routine, effective enforcement of laws that have the best chance of making our communities safer: dog license laws, leash laws, animal fighting laws, anti-tethering laws, laws facilitating spaying and neutering and laws that require all owners to control their dogs, regardless of breed.
They may actually encourage ownership by irresponsible people
If you outlaw a breed, then outlaws are attracted to that breed. Unfortunately some people take advantage of the “outlaw” status of their breed of choice to bolster their own self image as living outside of the rules of mainstream society. Ironically, the rise of Pit Bull ownership among gang members and others in the late 1980’s coincided with the first round of breed-specific legislation.
What’s the Alternative to Breed-Specific Laws? In the aforementioned study, the CDC noted that many other factors beyond breed may affect a dog’s tendency toward aggression—things such as heredity, sex, early experience, reproductive status, socialization and training. These last two concerns are well-founded, given that:
For help in drafting animal control laws, contact the ASPCA’s Government Relations department at email@example.com.
11-23-2012, 09:58 AM
RE: 10 ways to help end dog fighting!!!
The above is a mountain of information about dog help and fighting.
which is so many useful for every dog owner and also for all that
who need good knowledge , Ideas and information about animal life.......
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